HISTORIA DE LOS CÓCTELES

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Inicios

Existen diversas versiones diferentes y sorprendentes en torno a la aparición de la palabra cóctel:

-Una tradición hace remontar su origen a la creación, por un francés, de una bebida a base de vino y servida en una nevera (en francés coquetier), lo que le habría valido el nombre de coquetel. Ésta habría llegado a América gracias al ejército del general Lafayette, en 1977, y habría dado naturalmente la forma inglesa cocktail.

- Hay una variante según la cual el coquetel es obra de un farmacéutico francés de Nueva Orleáns, Antoine Peychaud, que servía mezclas de bebidas a sus clientes (sobre todo una mezcla de bíteres y coñac, a la que más tarde se llamaría Brandy cóctel).

- México podría haber sido también cuna de la palabra cóctel: el legendario barman Harry Craddock decía que Coctel era el nombre de la hija del rey Axolotl, que servía mezclas de su invención.

- En el sur de Estados Unidos parece que se utilizaban colas de gallo para remover y mezclar bebidas; tenían la función de las cucharillas mezcladoras. Parece entonces, que cóctel proceda del nombre de una raíz, cock’s tail “cola de gallo”.

- Evocando una última tradición muy arraigada, digamos que alguien habría pedido a un barman en cierta ocasión una mezcla de diferentes bebidas alcohólicas y que habría bautizado a la mezcla como cockatail, porque le recordaba el aspecto abigarrado de la cola de un gallo.

 

Creación de los cócteles

Los cócteles, creados probablemente a finales de siglo XVIII ( la palabra inglesa cocktail apareció a principios del siglo siguiente), conocieron una aceptación que no cambiaría jamás. Hoy se distinguen tres grandes familias:

- Los short drinks (tragos cortos): contiene como mínimo una base de alcohol y otra bebida carente de él, como la soda, los zumos de frutas, un néctar…

- Long drinks (tragos largos): cócteles menos cargados de alcohol que los short drinks, pero servidos en más volumen.

- Sin alcohol: no contienen alcohol, y permiten una mayor creatividad, ya que permite cualquier mezcla sin efectos nocivos para la salud.

 

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